European Union

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IMPORTANT NOTE
This article is not an official FIGU publication.

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union (Supranational union) of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe.

Contents


European Union in the contact reports

List them here.


Other Information

Description

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union (Supranational union) of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU operates through a system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmental negotiated decisions by the member states. Institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank, the Court of Auditors, and the European Parliament. The European Parliament is the only institution of the EU in which the citizens themselves elect a representative, however this election process occurs once every five years.[1] The complicated arrangement is known as a so-called, partial democracy, low intensity democracy, empty democracy or hybrid regime, though these terms are controversial and some scholars such as Steven Levitsky and Lucan Way argue that terms such as "illiberal democracy" are inappropriate because these terms imply that these regimes are, at their heart, democracies that have gone wrong and failed. Which is only partially the conclusion when it comes to the European supranational union.

A number of EU member states have elected people to represent their state on the basis and premise of their often popular anti-EU stance which on the one hand demands the generation of negativity and on the other throws a number of critical arguments into by definition dispute. As a result of the naturally occurring law of cause and effect, great tensions, riots and revolutions have in the mean time taken place as result of this often confusing and confrontational void that has developed more recently across the EU. The situation has disturbed the harmony and balance of otherwise peaceful neutral nations. As a rebalancing of power has occurred as a rule without either the consent or the necessary consultation or even acknowledgement of the tax paying citizens of the EU member states. Resulting in a number of tragedies across the continent, hollowing out of communities and the generation of wild, angry and often dangerous outspoken yet confused men with very little left to loose.

The United Kingdom for example with its long history of trade with partners across the world elected Nigel Farage as their MEP (Member of the European Parliament, europarliamentarian or eurodeputy), who founded a right-wing populist political party called UKIP (UK Independence Party) that has been designed specifically to promote UK independence from the EU and its currency, though not from its traditional relationship with union countries. The situation in the EU has developed sufficiently incorrectly in the UK for the long standing United countries of Kingdom to be thrown into question with Scotland debating the viability of becoming independent from the other countries in the UK, which is a possible consequential disaster and a further national enslavement for the people of these islands that constitute the countries.

A further issue in folding over a style of governance in a new and misunderstood format such as this has been that some have benefited from various grants and commissions having known where to find them and how to apply for them. While in other examples individuals have used the European Courts to undermine various controversial conditions in their member state, which has caused a moral paradox in some situations, such as local cultural and traditional customs, while in other situations it has undermined the very value of money and what it could possibly represent to us, as a result of it being given away to be mismanaged.

The formation of the European Union has created any number of rifts and instabilities in the European region, including the viably for farmers to turn a profit in some areas, undermining the very foundation of our societies in this way. With very little obvious benefits to these newly formed relationships for anyone but the individuals who designed these systems.

The consensus among Young People, has been that if they are expected to slave at a base rate wage of equivalent value in any member state, that they're obvious and clear prospects will be enhanced by going to live in the southern EU countries, where the weather and lifestyles are finer, traditions stronger and house and land prices are fairer, resulting in better health and well-being for a young person by way of logic. This again by way of logic caused the various criticisms, including so-called housing bubbles in Spain, Italy, Greece. As these various mass migrations from all over the EU were calculated by all but the most reasonable, resulting in a piling up of resources and ultimately a series of bubbles. But also the member states with a higher rate of compensation, ie a higher wage for the same quantity of work, have become particularly appealing, resulting needless to say various broken communities and far from being progressive have actually caused a great deal of anger and conflict in the short to medium term. Though the forecasters set their vision to the longer term and in this way, something more like a United states of Europe. Along this thread of ideas a United states of America civil war becomes of more interest when attempting to forecast the future of Europe, as well as attempting to make Europe more stable through learning in this way.

It has to be said, that this is also due on a world wide scale at some future point in time, A United Regions of Earth, type regime. But has anyone questioned the wisdom in destroying these long standing social agreements between the various places and people around the world, such a question is unclear. It is clear however that those of minimum wage levels are going to seek the best possible opportunities for themselves and their families, especially when they are unable to find work upon reaching adulthood in the areas they traditionally would have done so. As a result of the EU changing the face of where and when trading and money transaction and profit takes place. It will take a long time for many EU member states to recover from the turmoil if at all in some isolated ways. While concurrently to this the EU is being invaded by people of all ages from the surrounding Middle-east and African regions who also are seeking a better more prosperous future life for themselves. Many tragedies have occurred in the last few decades in the EU and they've gone unnoticed for strange and unknown reasons, even ignored in some cases.

The Eleven Founding Fathers of the European Community

  • Konrad Adenauer (Germany)
  • Joseph Bech (Luxembourg)
  • Johan Willem Beyen (Netherlands)
  • Winston Churchill (United Kingdom)
  • Alcide De Gasperi (Italy)
  • Walter Hallstein (Germany)
  • Sicco Mansholt (Netherlands)
  • Jean Monnet (France)
  • Robert Schuman (France)
  • Paul-Henri Spaak (Belgium)
  • Altiero Spinelli (Italy)

The Founding Fathers of the European Community and the present European Union said that supranationalism was the cornerstone of the governmental system. This is enshrined in the Europe Declaration made on 18 April 1951, the same day as the European Founding Fathers signed the Treaty of Paris.

Victor Hugo (1802–1885) made a speech where he called for a United States of Europe in 1849 at the International Peace Congress of Paris.

Winston Churchill (1874–1965) made a speech in Zürich in 1946 where he brought forward the idea of a Council of Europe (set up a few years later).

Jacques Delors (born 1925), was a successful Commission President in the 1980s and 90s.

Sicco Mansholt (1908–1995), a Dutch minister and Commission President. Lorenzo Natali (1922–1989).

Mário Soares (born 1924), Portuguese Prime Minister at the time Portugal acceeded the EC.

Altiero Spinelli (1907–1986), an Italian active in the resistance and European federalists movement who became a prominent MEP and Commissioner.

Pierre Werner (1913–2002) a Prime Minister of Luxembourg.

Supranational union

The EU is the only entity on earth which provides for international popular elections, going beyond the level of political integration normally afforded by international treaty, making it unique in the world. The term "supranational" is sometimes used in a loose, undefined sense in other contexts, sometimes as a substitute for international, transnational or global. Another method of decision-making in international organisations is intergovernmentalism, in which state governments play a more prominent role.

The Council of Europe created a system based on human rights in its founding Statute and its Convention of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Robert Schuman, French Foreign minister, initiated the debate on supranational democracy in his speeches at the United Nations, at the signing of the Council's Statutes and at a series of other seeches across Europe and North America.

Democracy

A democratic deficit (or democracy deficit) occurs when ostensibly democratic organizations or institutions (particularly governments) fall short of fulfilling the principles of democracy in their practices or operation where representative and linked parliamentary integrity becomes widely discussed.

The phrase democratic deficit is cited as first being used by the Young European Federalists in their Manifesto in 1977,which was drafted by Richard Corbett. The phrase was also used by David Marquand in 1979, referring to the then European Economic Community, the forerunner of the European Union.

The concept of a Democratic deficit within the European Union today is the idea that the governance of the European Union in some way lacks democratic legitimacy. The term was initially used to criticise the transfer of legislative powers from national governments to the Council of ministers of the EU. This led to an elected European Parliament being created and given the power to approve or reject EU legislation. Since then, usage of the term has broadened to describe newer issues facing the European Union.

Opinions differ as to whether the European Union has a democratic deficit or how it should be remedied if it exists. Proponents of Pro-Europeanism or European unification argue that the European Union should reform its institutions to make them more accountable, while Eurosceptics argue that the European Union should reduce its powers.


History

The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), formed by the Inner Six (Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) countries in 1951 and 1958, respectively. In the intervening years the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. The Maastricht Treaty established the European Union under its current name on 7th February 1992.

Maastricht Treaty

The Maastricht Treaty created the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. The treaty has since been amended. The latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009.

Euro Currency

The euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit (ECU) at a ratio of 1:1. The currency is used by the Institutions of the European Union and is the official currency of the eurozone, though only 18 of the 28 member states of the European Union adopted the currency: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.

The currency is also used in a further five European countries and consequently used daily by some 334 million Europeans as of 2013. Additionally, 210 million people worldwide as of 2013—including 182 million people in Africa—use currencies pegged to the euro.

The euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of November 2013, with more than €951 billion in circulation, the euro has the highest combined value of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.S. dollar. Based on International Monetary Fund estimates of 2008 GDP and purchasing power parity among the various currencies, the euro-zone is the second largest economy in the world.

Since late 2009, the euro has been immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis which has led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising the currency.

National Enslavement

National Enslavement

Brexit - Britains vote to leave

Brexit

Further Reading

References

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union

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